Kharkiv is is the second largest city in Ukraine. Founded in 1654, Kharkiv became the first capital of Soviet Ukraine, now the administrative centre of the Kharkiv oblast. Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine.
Odessa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000. The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by the Khan of Crimea, in 1240 and originally named after him as “Hac?bey”. After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529 and remained in Ottoman hands until the Ottoman Empire’s defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. The city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great in 1794.