Baturyn (Baturin) is a historic town in the Chernihiv Oblast in the North of Ukraine. It is located in the Bakhmach district of the oblast, on the banks of the Seym River. The current estimated population is 3,066.
In June, 1993 the Ukrainian government declared Baturyn the center of a national site of Ukrainian history and culture. In August, 2002 at the prodding of President Viktor Yushchenko, a government program was approved to restore Baturyn to its former glory.
On January 22, 2009, Ukraine’s President Viktor Yushchenko officially opened the “Hetmans’ Capital” Monumental complex with the newly renovated Razumovsky Palace.
The revival of the Hetman capital city of Baturyn was an important step in restoring national dignity.
Evidence of settlement in the area of present-day Baturyn dates back to the Neolithic era, with Bronze Age and Scythian remains also having been unearthed. According to some modern writers, the earliest fortress at Baturyn would have been created by the Grand Principality of Chernihiv in the 11th century.
The capital of the Cossack Hetmanate, an autonomous Cossack republic in Left-bank Ukraine, was located in Baturyn from 1669–1708, and from 1750-1764.
It was in Baturyn that Hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky signed the Baturyn Statutes in 1663, which further elaborated the treaty with the Tsardom of Russia which Khmelnytsky had initiated with the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654.
The area prospered under the rule of Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1687–1708), increasing in size and population (with upwards of 20,000 residents). Baturyn boasted 40 churches and chapels, two monasteries and a college for government officials and diplomats.
In 1708, the Zaporozhian Cossacks were caught in the midst of the Great Northern War, in which Hetman Mazepa supported Sweden and its war with the Russian Empire and for Ukraine’s independence. On November 13, 1708 Baturyn was sacked and razed by the Russian army.
By 1726 the city was a ghost town.
The town was rebuilt in the 1750s, and served as the capital for Hetman Count Kirill Razumovsky, whose palace was designed by Andrey Kvasov in the Baroque style (later rebuilt in the Neoclassical style by Charles Cameron in 1799-1803).
The home of the famous Cossack Vasily Kochubey, which was constructed some 50 years earlier, is surrounded today by a park in his name (although this building was devastated during World War II, it was restored during Soviet times).
Following Hetman Razumovsky’s death, the town lost most of its political stature.