The word “Ukraine” has a deep sense in understanding of our world.
Translated from the ancient Sanskrit language «UKR» means Light, «RA» means the Sun and the «INE» means fine spiritual energy.
Ukraine is a country of sunshine and spiritual energies.
It is fine to believe that it is we, the Ukrainians, who will be able to open the world the lost ancient knowledge of the spiritual energies.
To realize this mission is possible only through a system of spiritual education, formation of tourism trends to Unkraine and popularisation of our country.
Ukrainians have the country’s long history. The march of successive civilizations from prehistoric times, the Scythians, Greeks, Varaungian, Slavic, and Turkic peoples have all left their marks. The birthplace of the Slavic state was Kyivan-Rus which flourished a thousand and a half years ago.
There is an old legend which tells of three brothers who found Kyiv (Kiev) at the end of the fifth century. The brothers Kiy, Khoriv, and Shchek, along with their sister, Lybid, decided to name this newly founded land “Kyiv,” after their elder brother.
Kyiv bloomed during the end of the ninth century as a political center inhabited by Eastern Slavs. Kyiv had an advantageous trade route in the center of Europe.
In 988, Kyiv’s Prince Volodymyr the Great introduced Christianity to Kyiv making it the official religion of Kyivan-Rus. It played an important role in Kyiv’s political development and cultural relations with the European and Near Eastern countries.
In 1240, Kyiv was invaded by the Tatar-Mongols led by the grandson of Genghis Khan.
For many centuries thereafter Ukraine was attacked and ruled by Poland and Lithuanian, Russia, Germany and others. During this time Ukrainian Kozack armies were formed which were led by a Hetman (military leader). In 1648 Ukraine and Russia joined into one and this led to a long period of domination by the Russian Empire and ultimately the Soviet Union.
After the revolution of 1917 the Soviet Union expanded their sphere of control into Ukraine.
The leader Josef Stalin caused the Great Famine of 1932-33 by forcibly collecting grain and deliberately starving to death nearly ten million people.
In September Nazi Germany began World War II and entered Kyiv razing the city. 1945 year is the end of the WWII.
Ukrainians get their independence during the failed Soviet coup of August 1991. In a referendum held on December 1, 1991 the people of Ukraine endorsed independence and voted Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk as Ukraine’s first ever democratically elected President.
Ukraine’s area is 233,088 square miles (603,700 sq. km). Ukraine has natural boundaries such as the Carpathian Mountains in the southwest and the Black Sea in the south. The Dnipro River with its many tributaries unifies central Ukraine economically. The mouth of the Danube River provides an outlet for Ukrainian trade with the Balkans, Austria, and Germany.
Ukraine has a complex geology. Central and southern Ukraine is primarily steppe (prairie), with fertile black soil for grain farming. In the east is the industrial heartland containing large reserves of mineral deposits.
Northern and western Ukraine are hilly, forested areas with many picturesque mountain resorts. There are two mountain ranges, the Carpathian on its western border where winter sports are very popular; and the Crimean range, which divides the Crimean peninsular, creating a semitropical area. The Crimea is a favorite destination for tourists.
The climate of Ukraine is determined by its geographical location. Ukraine’s territory lies in the temperate belt. In general the country’s climate is climate is temperately continental, being subtropical only on the southern coast of the Crimea. The average temperature in summer +25 C and in winter -6 C.
The population of Ukraine is approximately 46 million, of which 73% is Ukrainian and 22% Russian. The remaining population is made up of many minorities, the largest of which is Jewish (1.35%), Byelorussians, Moldovans, Poles, Armenians, Greeks, Bulgarians, and others. Most population is urban.
The Ukrainian Political system has a popularly-elected President, a 450-person single chamber national parliament (Verkhovna Rada), and a Prime Minister, nominated by the President subject to approval by the Rada.
Arts, Science and Education
Ukrainians have made a spirited effort to preserve their cultural traditions and customs. There are several outdoor museum villages displaying buildings, crafts, and living conditions of the last century. Folk dancing and music festivals are often held with traditional, regional music and costumes.
The Kyiv Opera House is home to a very good opera company and a ballet company of considerable talent.
Ukrainian contemporary art includes painting and sculpture in a wide range of experimental and traditional styles. Icons and folk art are displayed in museums. There are several art museums with collections of Ukrainian and European art. There are museums with good collections of archeology, geology, botany, zoology, and aerospace.
Educational policy favors the study of science and technology. At present, education is compulsory for ages 7-16. University-level education is open to anyone who can pass an admission test.
Ukraine is rich in universities and institutes of higher learning.
The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has heavily influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music.
The Ukrainian language is the only official language in Ukraine, while Russian is also widely spoken.
Kyiv – the capital of Ukraine
Kiev has a population of nearly 3 million inhabitants and covers over 43 km from east to west and 42 km from north to south. Kyiv has much to offer in the cultural and architectural arenas with its wide tree-lined boulevards and historical buildings reflecting various styles and periods of history. Kyiv is also a major industrial center.